|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||2,477,520|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||1,746,115|
|Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations (JECEI)|
|دوره 11، شماره 1، فروردین 2023، صفحه 217-228 اصل مقاله (831.38 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Original Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22061/jecei.2022.9015.568|
|S. Sadeghi1؛ M. Nayeri* 1؛ M. Dolatshahi2؛ A. Moftakharzadeh3|
|1Department of Electrical Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.|
|2Department of Electrical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.|
|3Department of Electrical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.|
|تاریخ دریافت: 16 خرداد 1401، تاریخ بازنگری: 27 مرداد 1401، تاریخ پذیرش: 04 مهر 1401|
|Background and Objectives: In this paper, a novel structure as a Folded-Mirror (FM) Trans-impedance Amplifier (TIA) is designed and introduced for the first time based on the combination of the current-mirror and the folded-cascade topologies. The trans-impedance amplifier stage is the most critical building block in a receiver system. This novel proposed topology is based on the combination of the current mirror topology and the folded-cascade topology, which is designed using active elements. The idea is to use a current mirror topology at the input node. In the proposed circuit, unlike many other reported designs, the signal current (and not the voltage) is being amplified till it reaches the output node. The proposed TIA benefits from a low input resistance, due to the use of a diode-connected transistor, as part of the current mirror topology, which helps to isolate the dominant input capacitance. So, as a result, the data rate of 5Gbps is obtained by consuming considerably low power. Also, the designed circuit employs only six active elements, which yields a small occupied chip area, while providing 40.6dBΩ of trans-impedance gain, 3.55GHz frequency bandwidth, and 664nArms input-referred noise by consuming only 315µW power using a 1V supply. Results justify the proper performance of the proposed circuit structure as a low-power TIA stage.|
Methods: The proposed topology is based on the combination of the current mirror topology and the folded-cascade topology. The circuit performance of the proposed folded-mirror TIA is simulated using 90nm CMOS technology parameters in the Hspice software. Furthermore, the Monte-Carlo analysis over the size of widths and lengths of the transistors is performed for 200runs, to analyze the fabrication process.
Results: The proposed FM TIA circuit provides 40.6dBΩ trans-impedance gain and 3.55GHz frequency bandwidth, while, consuming only 315µW power using a 1V supply. Besides, as analyzing the quality of the output signal in the receiver circuits for communication applications is vital, the eye-diagram of the proposed FM TIA for a 50µA input signal is opened about 5mV, while, for a 100µA input signal the eye is opened vertically about 10mV. So, the vertical and horizontal opening of the eye is clearly shown. Furthermore, Monte-Carlo analysis over the trans-impedance gain represents a normal distribution with the mean value of 40.6dBΩ and standard deviation of 0.4dBΩ. Also, the value of the input resistance of the FM TIA is equal to 84.4Ω at low frequencies and reaches the value of 75Ω at -3dB frequency. The analysis of the effect of the feedback network on the value of the input resistance demonstrates the input resistance in the absence of the feedback network reaches up to 1.4MΩ, which yields the importance of the existence of the feedback network to obtain a broadband system.
Conclusion: In this paper, a trans-impedance amplifier based on a combination of the current-mirror topology and the folded-cascade topology is presented, which amplifies the current signal and converts it to the voltage at the output node. Due to the existence of a diode-connected transistor at the input node, the input resistance of the TIA is comparatively small. Furthermore, four out of six transistors are PMOS transistors, which represent less thermal noise in comparison with NMOS transistors. Also, the proposed Folded-Mirror topology occupies a relatively small area on-chip, due to the fact that no passive element is used in the feedforward network. Results using 90nm CMOS technology parameters show 40.6dBΩ trans-impedance gain, 3.55GHz frequency bandwidth, 664nArms input-referred noise, and only 315µW power dissipation using a 1volt supply, which indicates the proper performance of the proposed circuit as a low-power building block.
|Trans-impedance Amplifier؛ Folded-Mirror؛ Optical Receiver؛ Folded-Cascade؛ Ultra-Low-Power|
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تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 347
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 258